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Section 1 Introduction to Plumbing

Figure 4-1. Reading a standard rule accurately and quickly is a skill that every plumber must master. Study the

fraction above to fix the division of an inch firmly in your mind.

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Inch dimensions

1∕2″ dimensions divide each

inch into two equal spaces

1∕4″ dimensions divide each

inch into four equal spaces

1∕8″ dimensions divide each

inch into eight equal spaces

1∕16″ dimensions divide each

inch into sixteen equal spaces

Figure 4-2. Learn to recognize each scale marking by length and position.

1 2 3 4 5 6

51∕8″

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 5

41∕2″

1 2 3 4

33∕16″

23∕4″