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Chapter 10 Social-Emotional Development in the First Year 297
Review and Assessment
Social-emotional development involves a person’s basic disposition, social relations, and emotions.
Babies vary in their temperaments. High-reactive infants are the most vulnerable to stress and its
effects, especially when parenting expectations are unrealistic.
An infant’s social development is affected by interacting with others and showing attachment.
Babies interact with others through a “serve and return” relationship. Without positive serve and
return, social connections in the baby’s brain do not form correctly. In the fi rst year, babies begin to
develop attachment for their parents and others who are close to them (called focused attachment).
The results of poor attachments are similar to the results of negative interactions with adults.
Emotional wiring of the brain begins at birth and is completed in the preschool years. Emotions of
love, fear, anxiety, and anger arise in all children. These emotions consist of thoughts that lead to feelings
and, in turn, cause changes in the body. It is healthy for babies to express a wide range of emotions.
According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, babies must resolve the confl ict of trust versus mistrust.
Babies learn trust by having their basic needs met. Positive baby-adult interactions must be encouraged
for healthy development. Interactions should focus on respecting the baby’s temperament and on
correctly, consistently, and promptly responding to baby’s signals of needs in a loving way. The
beginnings of self-awareness become obvious during the fi rst year and should be encouraged.
Portfolio Standardized
Test Scores
For college portfolios and for some career port-
folios, you may be asked to provide your standardized
test scores. Standardized tests are national tests that
assess your education level in general subjects, such
as math, science, reading, and writing. Standardized
tests vary by state and region, but include the ACT,
PSAT, and SAT. To obtain your test scores, complete
the following activities.
Determine which, if any, standardized test
scores you need to include in your portfolio. If
you are unsure, ask your teacher or a guidance
Research the steps for requesting your
standardized test scores and submit the
request or set a date to submit it based on the
deadline for your portfolio. Request your scores
well in advance of when they are needed.
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