Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chapter 10 Social-Emotional Development in the First Year 297 Review and Assessment Chapter 10 Summary Social-emotional development involves a person’s basic disposition, social relations, and emotions. Babies vary in their temperaments. High-reactive infants are the most vulnerable to stress and its effects, especially when parenting expectations are unrealistic. An infant’s social development is affected by interacting with others and showing attachment. Babies interact with others through a “serve and return” relationship. Without positive serve and return, social connections in the baby’s brain do not form correctly. In the fi rst year, babies begin to develop attachment for their parents and others who are close to them (called focused attachment). The results of poor attachments are similar to the results of negative interactions with adults. Emotional wiring of the brain begins at birth and is completed in the preschool years. Emotions of love, fear, anxiety, and anger arise in all children. These emotions consist of thoughts that lead to feelings and, in turn, cause changes in the body. It is healthy for babies to express a wide range of emotions. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, babies must resolve the confl ict of trust versus mistrust. Babies learn trust by having their basic needs met. Positive baby-adult interactions must be encouraged for healthy development. Interactions should focus on respecting the baby’s temperament and on correctly, consistently, and promptly responding to baby’s signals of needs in a loving way. The beginnings of self-awareness become obvious during the fi rst year and should be encouraged. Portfolio Standardized Test Scores For college portfolios and for some career port- folios, you may be asked to provide your standardized test scores. Standardized tests are national tests that assess your education level in general subjects, such as math, science, reading, and writing. Standardized tests vary by state and region, but include the ACT, PSAT, and SAT. To obtain your test scores, complete the following activities. • Determine which, if any, standardized test scores you need to include in your portfolio. If you are unsure, ask your teacher or a guidance counselor. • Research the steps for requesting your standardized test scores and submit the request or set a date to submit it based on the deadline for your portfolio. Request your scores well in advance of when they are needed.