Unit 1 Taking Charge of Your Health and Wellness Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 78 Bed-wetting Bed-wetting occurs when a person unintentionally urinates (pees) at night during sleep. This condition is very common in children younger than five years of age, but older children and adults even wet the bed sometimes. Bed-wetting may occur in young children because they have small bladders or they do not yet have full bladder control. It may occur because they sleep too deeply to be woken up by the need to use the bathroom. Some children continue to wet the bed until their teen years. Doctors do not know what causes bed-wetting to continue or why it eventually stops. Adults who wet the bed often do so because of underlying medical issues. They should see a doctor if bed-wetting occurs. To reduce or avoid instances of bed-wetting, it may help to drink more liquid during the day and less at night, and go to the bathroom immediately before bedtime. If these methods do not work, however, other treatments exist. These include bed-wetting alarms to awaken a person if he or she begins wetting the bed, bladder training, and some medicines. Nightmares Have you ever woken up terrified after being chased by someone who wanted to do you harm? Perhaps you have dreamt that your teeth fell out or that you forgot about a big test in school. These are some common nightmare scenarios. Nightmares are scary dreams associated with negative feelings, such as anxiety, fear, and sadness. These dreams are common and often seem real. They may cause people to wake up and have difficulty falling asleep again. Nightmares usually occur during the last hours of sleep in a given night. Figure 3.12 shows factors that may cause nightmares. Children often have nightmares about monsters or scary scenarios. The scary images or scenarios are sometimes based on something they saw on television or read about immediately before going to bed. Young people typically have nightmares that focus on fears about their daily lives, such as problems at school or at home. Having nightmares or being afraid of having nightmares can cause some people to develop a fear of going to sleep. People who have this problem should talk to a doctor. Sleepwalking Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder in which people get out of bed and walk around while they are in a state of deep sleep. Sleepwalking typically occurs during stages three and four of the sleep cycle. Sleepwalking runs in families, and it most often affects young people. A person may sleepwalk when he or she is sick, has a fever, is not getting enough sleep, or is experiencing stress. Sleepwalking may look different for each person. A person who is sleepwalking may walk slowly around a bedroom. Another person may run around the house. While sleepwalking, people may speak in gibberish. What Causes Nightmares? What Causes Nightmares? • Daily life stresses or major life changes • Trauma, such as an accident or injury • Reading books and watching television programs or movies, especially right before bed • Eating right before bed, which can cause an increase in energy and brain activity • Lack of sleep and sleep disorders • Illness, especially a fever • Alcohol, illegal drugs, and some types of medications Figure 3.12 No single factor causes nightmares, and they can occur due to multiple factors at once. What do young people typically have nightmares about?