492 Glossary A above the fold. Placing online content on a web page so it can be seen without scrolling down the page. (13) actionable research. Research intended to improve the retailer’s practices how to fi x a problem. (4) adjourning. Stage fi ve of team development when the team’s work is fi nished and their efforts to meet a common goal come to an end. (16) adjustment. A discount on the purchase price of an item usually given on the sale of damaged or defective merchandise. (10) AIDA. Four-stage buying process model attention, interest, desire, and action. (10) anchor store. Large retail store that attracts many consumers to a shopping mall. (2) approach. The fi rst in-person contact a sales associate makes with a potential customer fi rst step in the sales process. Also known as the greeting. (10) asymmetrical balance. When the pieces of a display are equally distributed but not mirrored also known as informal balance. (12) asynchronous service. When a customer asks a question and the response comes at a later time or date. (11) attitude. Person’s perspective and feelings about something way a person looks at the world and responds to events. (5, 11) attitude research. Designed to fi nd out how consumers think or feel about aspects of a business also called opinion research. (4) automated e-mail. Computer-generated response to a customer e-mail. (11) B background check. A look into the personal data about an applicant. The information is available from government records and other sources, including public information on the Internet. (20) bait and switch. Practice of advertising a product, usually at a very low price, so customers will come into the store. When customers arrive, the featured product is sold out and another product is substituted. (17) balance. Way items are placed around an imaginary centerline. (12) bandwidth. Measure of the amount of data that can be transmitted via the Internet in a certain amount of time. (14) base price. Price at which a retailer expects to sell the product. (8) behavioral intention. Likelihood of engaging in a certain behavior. (4) behavioral question. Question that draws on an applicant’s previous experiences and decisions. (20) behavioral segmentation. Divides the market by the relationship between customers and a product or service. (5) benefit. How a product feature fulfi lls a need. (10) Noncash payments to employees, such as insurance and paid time off. (17) big box store. Large specialty discount store. (2) blog. A website in a journal format created by a person or organization short for web log. (9) boutique. Highly-specialized retail store that caters to consumers seeking unique items and a high level of customer service. (2) brand. The name, term, or design that consumers relate to a business or product. (12) break-even point. Point at which revenue from sales equals the costs. (8) brick-and-mortar. Store that has a physical location to display and sell merchandise and services. (2) buffer stock. Additional stock kept above the minimum required to meet anticipated needs. (6) burglary. Occurs when a person breaks into a business to steal merchandise, money, valuable equipment, or take confi dential information. (18) business risk. Possibility of loss or injury that might occur while operating a business. (18) business-to-consumer (B2C). Retailer that sells to consumers. (1) buying motive. Reason people buy what they buy. (5) buying signals. Clues that a customer is ready to buy. (10) buying status. Describes the timing of when a customer will buy a product or service. (5) buzz marketing. See viral marketing.