Encourage family members
to fi le their tax returns online,
if possible. Filing online
saves paper and time. Visit
the IRS website for a list of
authorized e-fi le options.
Financial Literacy
Taxes and Other Deductions
Your paycheck stub lists the various
deductions your employer subtracts from
your gross pay. Some, such as income taxes and
Social Security taxes are mandatory. Other deductions are
made with your permission.

Federal and State income taxes. This tax money is the
government’s main source of income. The government
uses the tax money to provide services, programs, and
facilities to all citizens. The amount of tax taken out of
your paycheck is based on how much you earn.

Social Security taxes. This amount may be listed under
the letters FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act).
The federal government administers the Social Security
program. It provides retirement, disability, and survivor
benefi ts to eligible working citizens. Your contribution is
a percentage of your earnings. Whatever you pay, your
employer pays a matching amount for you.

Other deductions. These may include health and life
insurance, savings and retirement plans, union dues, and
charitable contributions.
Science Connection
Generating Energy with Biomass
Wood once provided all the energy
needed for heating homes and cooking.
Today it is used in fi replaces, but this is a minor
use. Burning wood is restricted in many areas because the
smoke contains pollutants. Industries that convert wood to
paper, chemicals, and building products use wood waste to
produce their own steam and electricity.
Crops like corn and sugar are fermented to produce the
transportation fuel called ethanol. Another such fuel, biodiesel,
is made from oil extracted from soybeans. Although in limited
supply, these new types of fuel will become more available in
the future.
Solid waste is considered biomass if it is the type that
rots, such as food scraps and lawn clippings. (Trash also
contains glass, metals, and plastics, which are not biomass.)
Burning this waste generates steam and an ash by-product,
often used for roads. When the waste is placed in a landfi ll, it
releases a gas that can be converted to a fuel source.
Investigate public health
programs offering free or
discounted medical care to
children. Develop a list of
programs available in your
Math Connection
Determining Quantities
Kristen read that Americans create an
average of 4.4 pounds of trash daily. She wants
to know how much trash her class of 24 students
creates in a year. She can do this by multiplying the average
number of pounds by the number of students.
4.4 pounds × 24 students = 105.6 pounds per day
Then she would multiply the daily number of pounds by
the number of days in a year (365).
105.6 pounds per day × 365 days = 38,544 pounds per year
Introduction VII
Financial Literacy
Helps you develop money
management skills.
Wellness Awareness
Encourages you to explore
health and wellness topics
related to the chapter.
Living Green
Offers easy tips to incorporate
environmentally-friendly habits
in your daily life.
Science Connection
Links chapter content to the
fi eld of science.
Math Connection
Expands on chapter content related to
math. Specifi c examples demonstrate
step-by-step calculations.
Complex Concepts
Presented Simply
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