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verbal environment. All the communication that
occurs within a setting, including verbal and
nonverbal communication. (14)
virtual fi eld trips. Technology-based experiences
that allow children an educational excursion
without leaving the classroom. (28)
visual documentation. Collecting,
photographing, or video recording samples
of a child’s work that portrays learning and
development. (3)
visual impairment. Any eye or nerve problem that
prevents people from seeing normally. (31)
visual learner. A child who depends a great deal
on the sense of sight. (18)
visual perception. The coordination of the eye
and hand. (8)
visual signals. Transition method that involves
informing children of a change through signals
they can see. (17)
vitality. Liveliness. (27)
voice fl exibility. The changes of pitches and
loudness levels in a speaker’s voice that often
refl ect the speaker’s emotions. (31)
voice-quality disorders. Disorders in which
the quality of a speaker’s voice is affected;
includes harshness, breathiness, nasality, and
hoarseness. (31)
voluntarily. Out of one’s own will. (25)
wariness. Cautious fear. (29)
warm colors. Colors that make a room seem
smaller, including red, yellow, and orange. (9)
warning. Reminding children to follow classroom
rules, stating the misbehavior and the
consequences. (14)
water soluble. Able to dissolve in water. (19)
web. A planning tool or map that outlines major
concepts and ideas related to a theme. (18)
whole song method. Method used to teach short,
simple songs by having the children listen
and then sing along. (27)
windows of opportunity. A specifi c span of time
for the normal development of certain types
of skills. (4)
wound. Damage to the surface of the skin or
body tissue. (13)
young children. Children from birth to eight
years of age. (1)
Zone of proximodistal (ZPD). Vygotsky’s term
that defi nes what children can do alone or
with guidance and encouragement. (4)
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