Unit 1 Taking Charge of Your Health and Wellness Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 82 of a special machine that increases air pressure in the throat and keeps the airway open to help a person breathe. Someone with sleep apnea may wear a CPAP machine while sleeping (Figure 3.16). Narcolepsy Narcolepsy is a disorder that affects the brain’s ability to control the sleep-wake cycle. People with narcolepsy have frequent sleep attacks at various times of the day, even if they have had a normal amount of nighttime sleep. During a sleep attack, a person falls asleep suddenly for several seconds or even more than 30 minutes. Strong emotions, such as fear, stress, or excitement, may trigger sleep attacks. These sleep attacks can be embarrassing and dangerous. They may occur when people are walking, driving, or performing other forms of physical activity. Symptoms of narcolepsy typically appear first between the ages of 10 and 25, but diagnosis may not occur right away. The causes of narcolepsy are still unclear. This disorder tends to run in families. People whose parents have narcolepsy are more likely to develop it themselves. Narcolepsy may also be caused by brain damage resulting from a head injury or brain-related disease. Narcolepsy can be treated with medications that help control the symptoms. People with narcolepsy can also make lifestyle changes to treat their symptoms. These changes include taking short naps, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine or alcohol before bedtime, exercising daily, and avoiding eating large meals before bedtime. Lesson 3.2 Review 1. What age group is most commonly aff ected by “night owl” syndrome? 2. True or false. Young people typically have nightmares about events in their daily lives, such as at home or at school. 3. What are the two types of sleep apnea? 4. Which sleep problem involves having sleep attacks at various times of the day? A. Delayed sleep phase syndrome. B. Insomnia. C. Sleep apnea. D. Narcolepsy. 5. Critical thinking. Name three of the treatment methods available for bruxism and explain why these methods might help. Make a list of resources (print, online, and personal) that could help someone who is dealing with diffi cult or abnormal sleep. Rank the list in order from easiest to most diffi cult to access. Which resources would you be most comfortable accessing? Which resources do you think are the best? Is there a diff erence? Why or why not? Hands-On Activity Hands-On Activity Amy Walters/Shutterstock.com Figure 3.16 A CPAP machine consists of either a mask that covers the nose and mouth or prongs inserted into the nose to deliver oxygen. What does CPAP stand for?