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abrasion. A scrape that damages a portion of the
skin. (13)
acceleration. A process in which a gifted child is
assigned to a class with older children. (31)
accredited. Having a certifi cation that states a set
of standards has been met. (2)
acoustic material. Material used to deaden or
absorb sounds. Carpets, drapes, bulletin
boards, pillows, stuffed toys, and sand are
examples. (9)
acquired immunodefi ciency syndrome
(AIDS). A disease caused by the human
immunodefi ciency virus. The virus breaks
down the body’s immune system, leaving the
body vulnerable to disease. (13)
active listening. Listening to what is said, then
repeating it. (14)
activity patterns. Levels of movements in
infants. (5)
adjoining. Next to. (29)
adult-centered program model. A structured
curriculum format for school-age child care
that has a high level of adult direction. (30)
alienated. Feeling of not belonging. (32)
allergen. The offending substance that causes an
allergic reaction. (12)
allergy. The body’s negative reaction to a
particular substance, possibly including
rashes, swelling, or sneezing. (12)
amblyopia. The result of a muscle imbalance
caused by disuse of an eye. Often called
lazy eye. (31)
ambulatory. Able to move from place to place. (31)
anaphylactic shock. Extreme allergic reaction
that causes shock symptoms and possibly
death. (12)
anecdotal record. The simplest form of direct
observation; a brief narrative account of a
specifi c incident. (3)
animal stories. Books giving animals some
human qualities. Usually, the animal has
some unusual success or ability. (20)
apprehensive. Anxious. (28)
apps. Pieces of software that can be run on the
Internet from a phone, computer, electronic
tablet, or other type of handheld device. Also
known as applications. (24)
arthritis. Condition brought on by infl ammation
that produces swelling of joints and
surrounding tissues. (31)
articulation. The ability to speak in clearly
pronounced sounds. (7)
articulation problems. Omission errors,
distortion problems, or substitutions of
vowels or consonants or both. Often referred
to as lazy tongue and baby talk. (31)
assessment. The process of observing, recording,
and documenting children’s growth and
behavior. (3)
assimilation. Piaget’s term for adding new
information into an existing cognitive
(mental) structures. (4)
associative play. The fi rst type of social play
where children interact with one another
while engaging in a similar activity. (21)
asthma. A chronic infl ammatory disease of
the airways that causes airways to narrow,
swell, and produce extra mucus, triggering
symptoms such as labored breathing, gasping,
coughing, and wheezing. (13)
attachment. The strong emotional connection that
develops between people. (5)
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