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attention defi cit disorder (ADD). A behavioral
disorder in which a child has an unusually
short attention span. (31)
attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Form of ADD that includes hyperactivity and
impulsiveness. (31)
attitude. Your outlook on life; the way in which
you think about or act toward others. (33)
auditory discrimination skills. The ability to
detect different sounds by listening. (27)
auditory learner. Those who learn best through
hearing. (18)
auditory signals. Indicators that inform the
children of a change through the use of
sound. (17)
audiovisual board. A smooth wall board that
serves as a bulletin board, chalkboard, and
movie screen. (9)
augmentative communication device. Device
designed to help facilitate communication
with a child who is unable to speak
understandably. (31)
au pair. A person from a foreign country who
lives with a family and provides child
care in exchange for room, board, and
transportation. (1)
autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A
complex disorder that may cause social,
emotional, behavioral, and communication
impairments. (31)
autoharp. A simple chording instrument that can
be used to accompany singing. (27)
autonomy. Independence. (4)
axillary thermometer. Used to take the
temperature in the child’s armpit. (13)
axons. Long, thin projections of the neuron or
nerve cell that send information to other
neurons. (4)
baby sign language. Modifi ed gestures of
American Sign Language. (5)
behaviors. Any visible activities done by the
child. (18)
behavioral disorder. A condition that affects an
individual’s social, emotional, and cognitive
functions, such as attention defi cit disorder,
hyperactivity, or conduct disorder. (31)
behavioral expectations. Limits that children are
expected to follow. (28)
bid. The price at which vendors will sell items. (10)
bilingual. Describes a child whose home
language is something other than
English. (20)
biweekly. Two-week. (32)
block plan. A written overall view of the
curriculum that outlines the general
plans. (18)
body percussion. Movements that involve using
the body to make rhythm. (27)
boisterous. Loud or active. (27)
bolster. Strengthen. (33)
bridging. A process of placing two blocks
vertically a space apart and then adding a
third block. (19)
bullying. Aggression that is directed to another
child. (8)
burn. An injury caused by heat, radiation,
electrical current, or chemical agents. (13)
candidacy. Eligibility. (33)
capillaries. Small veins. (13)
cardinality. The concept that the last number of
the counting sequence tells how many objects
exist in a set. (23)
cautious. Slower to make decisions. (18)
cephalocaudal principle. Principle of
development stating that development
tends to proceed from the head downward.
According to this principle, the child fi rst
gains control of the head, then the arms, then
the legs. (4)
cerebral palsy. Condition resulting from damage
to the brain and characterized by lack of
control of voluntary movements. (31)
chalk painting. Art activity in which chalk is
dipped into water and used to draw on
construction paper. (19)
chant. A group of words spoken with a lively
beat. (27)
chaperones. People who accompany others to
ensure correct behavior. (28)
chartering. Hiring. (28)
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